The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimates overall costs for cancer in 2010 at $263.8 billion: $102.8 billion for direct medical costs (total of all healthcare expenditures), $20.9 billion for indirect morbidity costs (cost of loss of productivity due to illness), and $140.1 billion for indirect mortality costs (cost of lost productivity due to premature death) (American Cancer Society 2010 Facts & Figures).
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) developed a plan for four key aspects of cancer survivorship care. These elements were recorded in their document entitled Lost in Transition, which was published in 2005. Although this document has been well publicized within the oncology community, it continues to be a challenge to implement. These elements are: